An Cosantóir

May 2019

An Cosantóir the official magazine of the Irish Defence Forces and Reserve Defence Forces.

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Page 17 of 39

An Cosantóir May 2019 18 | A Hybrid Threat Requires a Hybrid Response BY DINOS ANTHONY KERIGAN-KYROU A s the 2015 Defence White Paper makes clear, the traditional concept of national se- curity has broadened considerably over the past 20 years. Threats are more diverse, less visible and much less predictable. Examples include regional conflicts, organised crime, ter- rorism, state failure and state collapse. These 'emerging' se- curity challenges - sometimes called asymmetric challenges - are becoming increasingly diverse. Energy security, climate change, health pandemics, forced migration and human trafficking, the displacement of large numbers of people due to internal conflicts within their own countries - are just some of examples. They have a direct effect on the Defence Forces and the security of the State, both here in Ireland and in the many regions of the world in which the Defence Forces operate. As Madeleine Albright former US Secretary of State said in her report 'NATO 2020 New Strate- gic Concept', the boundary between military and non-military threats is becoming blurred. Issues that were once considered matters which had nothing to do with the military are becoming central to the threats we face here and abroad. Indeed cyber security was identified by Secretary Albright as one of the issues which transcends these boundaries between military and civilian. And it is Cyberspace - the online environment in which we conduct such important parts of our lives and business - that is used by those who may wish to cause harm to the State and to the Defence Forces. So what is the difference between cyber security and cyberspace? This question is integral to the security of the Defence Forces. Cyber security is ensuring that cyberspace is not used for nefari- ous purposes. Many of us may think that cyber security is about security of computers and networks. While this is indeed a small part of cyber security, by missing the rest of the equation we actually place ourselves in particular danger. Because this failure to understand what cyber security is enables cyberspace to be used by those that wish to cause harm - without detection, prevention, or consequence. For example cyberspace, especially, the use of encrypted mes- saging, is used by particularly evil people involved in human trafficking across borders, or for the trade in people for forced prostitution. Cyber security in this context is about ensuring that cyberspace is not used by these criminals to facilitate human trafficking, and prevent the horrendous consequences for its victims. Cyber security here is also about helping identify victims in cyberspace of trafficking and exploitation, so that they can be assisted and that the perpetrators of the crimes against them can be brought to justice. Cyberspace is used by terrorists to indoctrinate and recruit new members, as well as to organise their activities and conduct their atrocities. This includes highly effective 'public relations'; media, videos, and using cyberspace to persuade people of the 'validity' of their actions. Dr Jamie Shea, formerly of NATO's Emerging Security Challenges Division, calls such terrorist groups 'parasitic organisa- tions'; they will take an issue they have no care about whatsoever - poverty in Africa, or corruption in Afghanistan, for example - and 'own' that issue, using cyberspace to 'justify' their terrorist atroci- ties. A key part of cyber security is using cyberspace to prevent people from being taken in by the propaganda being used by ter- rorist networks. PROTECTING CYBERSPACE

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